March 6, 2022
Clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings differentiating low-grade intestinal T-cell lymphoma from lymphoplasmacytic enteritis in cats
Low-grade intestinal T-cell lymphoma (LGITL) is the most common intestinal neoplasm in cats.
Differentiating LGITL from lymphoplasmacytic enteritis (LPE) is challenging because clinical signs, laboratory results, diagnostic imaging findings, histology, immunohistochemistry, and clonality features may overlap.
To evaluate Bio Med Frontiers possible discriminatory clinical, laboratory, and ultrasonographic features to differentiate LGITL from LPE.
Twenty-two cats diagnosed with LGITL and 22 cats with LPE based upon histology, immunohistochemistry, and lymphoid clonality.
Prospective, cohort study. Cats presented with clinical signs consistent with LGITL or LPE were enrolled prospectively. All data contributing to the diagnostic evaluation was recorded.
A 3-variable model (P < .001) consisting of male sex (P = .01), duration of clinical signs (P = .01), and polyphagia (P = .03) and a 2-variable model (P < .001) including a rounded jejunal lymph node (P < .001) and ultrasonographic abdominal effusion (P = .04) were both helpful to differentiate LGITL from LPE.
Most clinical signs and laboratory results are similar between cats diagnosed with LGITL and LPE. However, male sex, a longer duration of clinical signs and polyphagia might help clinicians distinguish LGITL from LPE.
On ultrasonography, a rounded jejunal lymph node, and the presence of (albeit small volume) abdominal effusion tended to be more prevalent in cats with LGITL. However, a definitive diagnosis requires comprehensive histopathologic and phenotypic assessment.
Expansion of Human Papillomavirus-Specific T Cells in Periphery and Cervix in a Therapeutic Vaccine Recipient Whose Cervical High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Regressed.
Advances in high-throughput sequencing have revolutionized the manner with which we can study T cell responses. We describe a woman who received a human papillomavirus (HPV) therapeutic vaccine called PepCan, and experienced complete resolution of her cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
By performing bulk Learn More T cell receptor (TCR) β deep sequencing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells before and after 4 vaccinations, 70 putatively vaccine-specific clonotypes were identified for being significantly increased using a beta-binomial model.
In order to verify the vaccine-specificity of these clonotypes, T cells with specificity to a region, HPV 16 E6 91-115, previously identified to be vaccine-induced using an interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay, were sorted and analyzed using single-cell RNA-seq and TCR sequencing.
HPV specificity in 60 of the 70 clonotypes identified to be vaccine-specific was demonstrated. TCR β bulk sequencing of the cervical liquid-based cytology samples and cervical formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples before and after 4 vaccinations demonstrated the presence of these HPV-specific T cells in the cervix.
Combining traditional and cutting-edge immunomonitoring techniques enabled us to demonstrate expansion of HPV-antigen specific T cells not only in the periphery but also in the cervix. Such an approach should be useful as a novel approach to assess vaccine-specific responses in various anatomical areas.
A Systematic Review of the Tumor-Infiltrating CD8 + T–Cells/PD-L1 Axis in High-Grade Glial Tumors: Toward Personalized Immuno-Oncology.
- Based on preclinical findings, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) can substantially attenuate CD8+ T-cell-mediated anti-tumoral immune responses. However, clinical studies have reported controversial results regarding the significance of the tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T-cells/PD-L1 axis on the clinical picture and the response rate of patients with high-grade glial tumors to anti-cancer therapies.
- Herein, we conducted a systematic review according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statements to clarify the clinical significance of the tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T-cells/PD-L1 axis and elucidate the impact of this axis on the response rate of affected patients to anti-cancer therapies.
- Indeed, a better understanding of the impact of this axis on the response rate of affected patients to anti-cancer therapies can provide valuable insights to address the futile response rate of immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with high-grade glial tumors.
- For this purpose, we systematically searched Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, and PubMed to obtain peer-reviewed studies published before 1 January 2021. We have observed that PD-L1 overexpression can be associated with the inferior prognosis of glioblastoma patients who have not been exposed to chemo-radiotherapy.
- Besides, exposure to anti-cancer therapies, e.g., chemo-radiotherapy, can up-regulate inhibitory immune checkpoint molecules in tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T-cells. Therefore, unlike unexposed patients, increased tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T-cells in anti-cancer therapy-exposed tumoral tissues can be associated with the inferior prognosis of affected patients.
- Because various inhibitory immune checkpoints can regulate anti-tumoral immune responses, the single-cell sequencing of the cells residing in the tumor microenvironment can provide valuable insights into the expression patterns of inhibitory immune checkpoints in the tumor micromovement.
- Thus, administrating immune checkpoint inhibitors based on the data from the single-cell sequencing of these cells can increase patients’ response rates, decrease the risk of immune-related adverse events development, prevent immune-resistance development, and reduce the risk of tumor recurrence.
T Cell-Based RAS Activity and Insulin Levels in Obese Subjects with Low Grade Inflammation.
Obesity is a major contributor to inflammation and oxidative stress that are key underlying causes for insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes.
Accumulated evidence suggests that RAS may serve as a strong link between IR and obesity. We investigated RAS activity in circulating T cells by obese subjects with and without angiotensin (Ang) II stimulation in presence or not of IR and of low-grade inflammation.
We studied 29 obese and 10 healthy subjects. After T-lymphocytes isolation, mRNAs for angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin 1-receptor (AT1-R) were quantified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), insulin and inflammatory cytokines serum levels, plasma renin activity (PRA) and ACE activity in cell pellet and supernatant, and angiotensin (Ang) II T cell content were also measured.
Under baseline conditions, RAS gene expressions, ACE activity and Ang II levels in T cells, but not PRA, of obese subjects with or without IR and with or without hs-CRP ≥3mg/dl were higher than in controls (p < 0.05).
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The increase in all parameters induced by Ang II was significantly higher in T cells from the obese subjects with hs-CRP≥3 mg/dl than in controls or in the obese subjects with hs-CRP<3 mg/dl. In the obese subjects with low grade inflammation and IR, the cytokine serum levels and T cells RAS gene expression was inversely correlated with insulin serum concentration.
Low grade inflammation amplifies the T cell RAS response to Ang II stimulation. T cell RAS gene expressions and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines were inversely related with insulin serum concentration. A protective role of insulin towards the development of inflammatory events can be hypothesized.